O Home office para as mulheres já existia, e nunca foi remunerado

A pandemia trouxe uma nova configuração à sociedade, em que parte desta passou a permanecer muito mais tempo em seus lares.

 

Desconsiderando nessa abordagem demais fatores adversos decorrentes dessa crise sanitária, alguns indivíduos conseguiram vislumbrar oportunidades para desempenhar outras atividades, sejam do lar ou por hobbie, como: mais tempo para jogar videogame, atualizar-se ou mesmo aumentar sua frequência de leitura, ao passo que tentam desenvolver suas atividades laborais (sejam elas formais ou não).

 

Esse momento mais “caseiro” permitiu novos olhares para o significado de “lar” e, em especial, sobre as relações estabelecidas na esfera privada. Essa conjuntura familiar, em seus diversos formatos, reacendeu os questionamentos em torno da gestão do cuidado. Afinal: a quem pertence a atenção ao lar (expectativas, enfermidades, alimentação, filhos e etc)?

 

Flávia Brioli, em seu livro “Gênero e Desigualdade – limites da democracia no Brasil”, traz uma reflexão sobre a responsabilização deste trabalho “home office” não remunerado, o qual não foi distanciado do consenso da esfera pública (construção social coletiva), como também é reforçado na esfera privada (núcleo familiar), mesmo com a frágil ideia de emancipação feminina (mulheres já representam significativa parcela de trabalhadores, mas continuam a receber 20% a menos que homens em mesma função).

 

Por que parto desse desse ponto?

 

 

Fazendo um recorte sobre um dos eventos de maior transformação sociopolítica e econômica (Revolução Industrial) e o movimento migratório, inicialmente exclusivamente masculino, crescente das forças de trabalho, o modelo de sociedade foi sendo urbanizado e o sentido de provimento da família também fora adequado ao “novo” padrão: os homens foram se distanciando do seu lares, desprendendo muitas horas do seu dia provendo valor à Indústria, se afastando das práticas de comunidade e divisão dos afazeres. Foi, então, empurrado, assim como remédio amargo, que era papel masculino o de suprir sua família, já que agora o conceito de trabalho foi modificado e este só existe se remunerado.

 

O cuidado do lar ficou com quem permaneceu em casa, a mulher, que logo teve que se dividir entre o trabalho remunerado e o doméstico (não remunerado). O tal “suprimento” masculino já não era capaz de sustentar e de atender às necessidades do lar. O apelo para a entrada das mulheres ao trabalho remunerado foi reforçado por duas principais frentes: a ideia de emancipação e a oferta de serviços destinados às mulheres – a abertura do mercado à expansão da produção fez o direcionamento da força de trabalho feminina, de menor remuneração pela Indústria.

 

O que está aqui colocado é que, apesar das transformações sociopolíticas, os padrões de cuidado sofreram poucas alterações, sendo reforçada em suas várias esferas, em especial pela estrutura política neoliberal. Assim sendo, para além da força de trabalho empregada para geração de valor para um sistema externo, esta figura feminina continua gerando valor (sem remuneração) no cuidado de toda a estrutura do lar, desdobrando sua jornada para mais de dezesseis horas/dia (entre cuidar de si, de seus estudos/formação, filhos e, por ventura, parceiro/a).

 

Esse cenário se torna mais precarizado quando envolvemos os fatores raça e classe nessa balança, pois além do trabalho do cuidado, nos deparamos com a precarização do trabalho (dito formal), fatores estes que colocam a mulher em maior vulnerabilidade, dentre elas a flexibilização de direitos, exposição à violência e, agora, ao Covid-19.

 

Quando recorremos ao universo da cultura pop de entretenimento, encontramos algumas referências em que se é possível vislumbrar este contexto, frequentemente despercebidos pelos consumidores, como:

  • Ángeles Vidal (As Telefonistas): representação da época marcada pelo aumento da participação das mulheres no mercado de trabalho formal. Mulher, mãe e esposa que ocupa a função de Telefonista, além da responsabilidade pelo cuidado de sua filha, casa e marido. Para além do trabalho, Ángeles vivia em um relacionamento abusivo e de violência dentro e fora de casa.

 

  • Srta. Sara Belo (Meninas Super Poderosas): mulher sem rosto (sem identidade), secretária do Prefeito que realiza todos os serviços formais da Prefeitura (inclusive os próprios deveres do Prefeito), além do serviço do cuidado, transcrito como “dedicação”.

 

  • Danuza (Irmão do Jorel): representada do início ao fim como uma mulher com energia infinita, é responsável pela ordem da casa, está sempre preocupada com seus filhos e ainda tem uma rotina de aulas enquanto professora de balé.

 

  • Nicole Reese (Criando Dion): mãe solo, se desdobra para criação de seu filho (com superpoderes) ao tempo que busca coragem para tentar uma recolocação no mercado de trabalho formal e como conciliar com sua rotina doméstica  e de ressocialização.

 

Decerto que outros exemplos começarão a ser lembrados após o contexto aqui apresentado, mas apenas para fechar, é importante lembrar que estes representam, de forma lúdica, o retrato ainda real do home office na realidade feminina.

Danielle Sodré

Danielle Sodré

Engenheira Ambiental e Sanitarista. Fã da Mulher-Maravilha. Entusiasta por representações femininas na cultura pop e suas repercussões

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